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About Linear Displacement Sensors

Linear Displacement Sensors

1. Introduction

Linear displacement sensors are essential components of modern industrial and scientific applications, providing accurate and reliable measurements of the change in position or distance between two points along a straight line. These versatile sensors come in a variety of types and technologies, each catering to specific requirements and environments. In this informational page, we will explore five key technologies used in linear displacement sensors: potentiometric, inductive, capacitive, magnetostrictive, and optical. Furthermore, we will discuss ten noteworthy applications where these sensors play a critical role in delivering precise and efficient performance.

As we delve into the world of linear displacement sensors, we'll learn how potentiometric sensors provide cost-effective, robust solutions for applications with limited stroke lengths. We'll examine inductive sensors, which offer excellent durability and resistance to environmental factors, making them ideal for harsh industrial conditions. Capacitive sensors, known for their non-contact operation and high sensitivity, allow for measurements across a wide range of materials. Magnetostrictive sensors excel in measuring displacement over long distances with high accuracy and repeatability, while optical sensors utilize the power of light to achieve exceptional precision and resolution.

Linear displacement sensors have found their way into a vast array of applications, including but not limited to:

  1. Robotics and automation systems, where precise positioning is critical for efficient operation.
  2. Machine tools, ensuring accurate control and monitoring of cutting and shaping processes.
  3. Automotive manufacturing, where sensors aid in controlling suspension systems, throttle control, and more.
  4. Aerospace applications, including the measurement of wing deflection, control surface positions, and landing gear actuation.
  5. Medical equipment, such as linear actuators in patient beds or robotic surgical instruments.
  6. Civil engineering projects, including structural health monitoring of bridges, dams, and other infrastructure.
  7. Renewable energy systems, like solar trackers and wind turbine blade pitch control.
  8. Industrial process control, where accurate measurements are crucial for maintaining product quality.
  9. Packaging and material handling systems, ensuring proper positioning of goods and equipment.
  10. Research and development, where displacement sensors play a vital role in collecting precise data for scientific exploration and discovery.

In the following sections, we will delve into the detailed workings of each technology, their advantages and disadvantages, and specific use cases, providing you with a comprehensive understanding of linear displacement sensors and their diverse applications.

2. Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT)

2.1. Introduction to LVDT's

The Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) is a widely used and well-known inductive displacement sensor. It operates based on the principle of mutual inductance, offering accurate and stable measurements with a high degree of repeatability. In this section, we will examine the principle of operation, advantages, and disadvantages of LVDTs, as well as explore five applications where these sensors are commonly chosen.

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2.2. Principle of Operation

The LVDT consists of a primary coil and two secondary coils wound on a cylindrical former. The primary coil is connected to an alternating current (AC) source, while the two secondary coils are connected in series but with opposite polarity. This arrangement creates a null point or balance condition when the core is in the center position. As the core moves, the induced voltage in the secondary coils changes proportionally to the core displacement, resulting in a differential output voltage. This output voltage can be measured and processed to determine the precise linear displacement of the core relative to the coils.

To illustrate the distance measurement process using an LVDT, let's consider a simple example. Suppose we have an LVDT with a primary excitation voltage of 5 Vrms at a frequency of 1 kHz. The secondary coils have a sensitivity of 2 mV/V/mm, meaning that for every millimeter of core displacement, the differential output voltage will change by 2 mV for each volt of excitation.

Let's say that the core is displaced by 10 mm from its null position. To calculate the differential output voltage (V_out), we can use the following formula:

V_out = Sensitivity × Excitation Voltage × Displacement

Plugging in the values:

V_out = 2 mV/V/mm × 5 V × 10 mm = 100 mV

Thus, the differential output voltage for a 10 mm core displacement would be 100 mV.

To determine the actual distance (D) based on the measured differential output voltage, we can rearrange the formula as follows:

D = V_out / (Sensitivity × Excitation Voltage)

So, if we measure a differential output voltage of 100 mV, we can calculate the displacement:

D = 100 mV / (2 mV/V/mm × 5 V) = 10 mm

This shows that the core has been displaced by 10 mm from its null position. By using this formula, LVDTs can provide precise distance measurements based on the differential output voltage, excitation voltage, and sensor sensitivity.

2.3 LVDT Amplifier and Signal Conditioning

Accurate and reliable measurements from an LVDT sensor require proper signal conditioning and amplification. The raw output from an LVDT is a small differential AC voltage signal, which needs to be processed and converted into a more suitable format for interpretation, display, or control. This section will discuss the role of amplifiers and signal conditioning in LVDT-based measurement systems.

Excitation Voltage: LVDTs require an AC excitation voltage for operation. This voltage is applied to the primary coil and is typically in the range of 1 kHz to 10 kHz. The excitation voltage must be stable and have low distortion to ensure accurate and repeatable measurements. In many cases, a dedicated oscillator circuit or function generator is used to generate the excitation voltage.

Demodulation and Filtering: The raw output from an LVDT is an AC signal with a frequency equal to the excitation voltage. This AC signal needs to be demodulated and filtered to extract the useful displacement information. Demodulation can be achieved using various techniques, such as synchronous demodulation, rectification, or phase-sensitive detection. The choice of demodulation technique depends on the specific application requirements, such as measurement accuracy, response time, and noise immunity.

After demodulation, the signal is usually passed through a low-pass filter to remove any high-frequency noise and harmonics. This filtered signal represents the displacement information and can be further processed or displayed as needed.

Amplification: The differential output voltage from an LVDT can be quite small, often in the millivolt range. To make this signal more suitable for further processing, it needs to be amplified. Instrumentation amplifiers are commonly used for this purpose, as they provide high input impedance, low noise, and excellent common-mode rejection. The gain of the amplifier should be carefully selected to match the desired measurement range and resolution.

Linearization and Scaling: In some cases, especially for large displacements or when higher accuracy is required, the output from an LVDT may exhibit some nonlinearity. This nonlinearity can be corrected using linearization techniques, such as lookup tables, polynomial curve fitting, or piecewise linear approximations. After linearization, the signal can be scaled to represent the actual displacement in the desired units, such as millimeters or inches.

Output Conversion: Finally, the conditioned and amplified LVDT signal may need to be converted into a format that is suitable for the specific application. This could involve converting the analog voltage signal into a digital format using an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) or generating a proportional current output (e.g., 4-20 mA) for process control applications.

In summary, proper signal conditioning and amplification are crucial for obtaining accurate and reliable measurements from an LVDT sensor. The choice of amplifiers, filters, and other signal conditioning components depends on the specific application requirements and desired performance characteristics. By carefully selecting and designing the LVDT signal conditioning circuitry, users can achieve high-quality displacement measurements with excellent accuracy, repeatability, and resolution.

2.4 Technology Advantages 

LVDTs offer several key advantages that make them a popular choice for various applications:

  1. Non-contact operation: Since the core doesn't physically touch the coils, LVDTs exhibit minimal friction and wear, resulting in long operational life and reduced maintenance requirements.
  2. High accuracy and repeatability: Due to the inductive coupling mechanism, LVDTs provide high measurement accuracy and excellent repeatability, even in harsh environments.
  3. Wide temperature range: LVDTs can operate over a broad temperature range, making them suitable for applications with extreme temperature conditions.
  4. Resistance to environmental factors: The inductive nature of LVDTs makes them immune to electrical noise, humidity, and other environmental factors that might affect capacitive or resistive sensors.
  5. Infinite resolution: As an analog sensor, LVDTs can theoretically provide infinite resolution, limited only by the signal conditioning electronics.

Additionally, LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) contact displacement sensors have gained popularity due to their compact sensor head and the elimination of tracking errors and unknown origin positions. While earlier models faced issues related to temperature changes or sensor head-amplifier combinations, modern designs have effectively addressed these challenges.

By incorporating high-density coils, the sensor head size can be significantly reduced. Additionally, relay amplifiers can be designed with specialized circuits that enable optimal control of critical components, such as the coil, core, and transmission/reception circuits. This facilitates customized tuning based on each component's status and allows temperature compensation. With the LVDT principle, measurements can be performed without tracking errors or unknown origin positions. Traditional transformer methods suffered from accuracy issues due to phase shifts in the analog waveform, resulting from variations caused by amplifier and sensor head matching or temperature fluctuations. However, LVDT contact displacement sensors employed in recent years have successfully overcome these drawbacks.

LVDT contact displacement sensors boast an enclosure rating that delivers exceptional resistance to harsh environments. Each component is meticulously sealed, enabling the sensor's use in areas prone to splashing water or dust. This design ensures accurate measurements, even under challenging conditions often found around manufacturing equipment.

Typically, LVDT sensors adhere to enclosure rating standards for water resistance, encompassing relay connectors and cables as well. This permits the installation of the sensor head in virtually any location, including those exposed to water splashes. The casings are crafted in a single piece, resulting in a seamless and fully sealed structure that offers enhanced durability. To guarantee long-term use in harsh conditions, sensor heads are sealed using gaskets that resist degradation over time, rather than relying on adhesives. For connectors, cables exhibiting superior water resistance are employed. This robust construction ensures consistent, accurate measurements for extended periods, even in environments with splashing water or dust.

2.5 Technology Disadvantages 

Despite their numerous advantages, LVDTs do have some limitations:

  • AC excitation required: LVDTs require an AC voltage source for operation, necessitating additional electronics for signal conditioning and processing.
  • Size and weight: Due to their coil-based design, LVDTs tend to be larger and heavier than other types of displacement sensors, which might be a drawback in certain applications.
  • Limited dynamic response: The dynamic response of LVDTs is limited by the frequency of the excitation voltage, which might not be suitable for high-speed applications.

2.6 Industries and Applications

LVDTs are a popular choice for various applications due to their accuracy, reliability, and durability. Here are five common applications where LVDTs are typically chosen:

  1. Aerospace and aviation: LVDTs are used to gauge the position of control surfaces, landing gear, and engine components, where high accuracy and resistance to harsh environments are essential.
  2. Power generation: In nuclear power plants, LVDTs measure the position of control rods and other critical components, ensuring accurate monitoring and control while withstanding extreme temperature and radiation conditions.
  3. Industrial automation: LVDTs are employed in machine tools and automated assembly lines to monitor the position of actuators, grippers, and other moving components, providing high accuracy and repeatability.
  4. Test and measurement: LVDTs are used in materials testing machines and other research equipment to measure linear displacement with high precision and resolution, enabling accurate data collection and analysis.
  5. Hydraulic and pneumatic systems: In hydraulic and pneumatic cylinders, LVDTs measure the position of pistons and other moving components, ensuring precise control and monitoring of fluid pressures and flow rates.

In summary, LVDT's are versatile and reliable linear displacement sensors that are widely used across various industries. Their non-contact operation, high accuracy, repeatability, and resistance to environmental factors make them a popular choice for demanding applications. While they do have some limitations, such as the need for AC excitation and their size and weight, the advantages of LVDTs often outweigh these drawbacks. With a deep understanding of the working principles, advantages, disadvantages, and applications of LVDTs, users can make informed decisions about selecting the most suitable displacement sensor technology for their specific needs.

2.6.1 Gear Assembly Accuracy Check and Clearance Measurement

Gears necessitate high assembly precision due to the strong forces they endure and the high rotational speeds they achieve. Clearances (gaps) between gears and adjacent components must also be strictly controlled. Post-assembly inspection is vital. With numerous components densely surrounding gears, measuring all clearances simultaneously demands sensors with comparable density. Moreover, sensors must be resistant to splashing oils and chemicals used during assembly.

LVDT contact displacement sensors can accurately measure gear assembly precision and surrounding clearances to within micrometers. Their slim, pencil-type casing allows multiple units to be installed in confined spaces while offering excellent resistance, including connectors and cables. There's no concern about corrosion or breakdown in environments with splashing water or oil. Utilizing robust components in sliding sections significantly reduces maintenance costs and replacement work.

2.6.2 Measurement of PCB Warping and Height of Mounted Components

Occasionally, components mounted on PCBs may be elevated due to PCB warping, otherwise known as component distortion. Besides defective mounting, PCB and component warping can result from degradation over time. These issues may lead to contact failure, making it necessary to measure PCB warpage and the height of mounted components.

LVDT contact displacement sensors can measure chip mounting height, confirm capacitor mounting orientation, and gauge PCB flatness. Low-stress models allow for measurement with minimal load, applying only 0.1 N of measuring force to products. This enables cost-effective, high-accuracy measurements without any impact from surface conditions.

2.6.3 Measurement in Tight Spaces

When targets and small parts are closely positioned, mounting space may be insufficient for other sensor types. This can create challenging applications that require extra effort, such as dividing measurements into multiple processes. If measurement remains unattainable, the inspection process must be revised.

Conversely, the compact design of LVDT contact displacement sensors permits multiple sensor heads to be installed in close proximity. They can also measure inflexible positions, like a sensor head mounted inside a cylindrical part to gauge the inner diameter. Simultaneously measuring multiple points allows for comprehensive data collection, improving the accuracy of measurement data analysis.

3. Linear Potentiometer Sensors

Linear potentiometer sensors, often referred to simply as linear potentiometers or slide potentiometers, are widely used for measuring linear displacement in various applications. These sensors are valued for their simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and ease of integration. In this section, we will delve into the principle of operation, amplification requirements, advantages and disadvantages, and ten possible applications for linear potentiometer sensors.

3.1 Principle of Operation

A linear potentiometer sensor operates based on the principle of varying resistance along a conductive track. It consists of a resistive element, a sliding contact or wiper, and two terminals connected to the ends of the resistive element. The wiper moves along the resistive track in response to the linear displacement of the object being measured. As the wiper moves, the resistance between the wiper and one of the terminals changes proportionally to the displacement. By measuring this resistance, the linear position of the wiper, and hence the displacement, can be determined.

Typically, a voltage divider circuit is used to measure the resistance change. A constant voltage is applied across the resistive element, and the output voltage at the wiper is measured. The output voltage is directly proportional to the wiper's position along the resistive track, and thus to the linear displacement.

3.2 Amplification

In some cases, the output voltage from the linear potentiometer may need to be amplified to match the input requirements of the subsequent processing or display electronics. An operational amplifier (op-amp) can be used in a non-inverting configuration to achieve the desired gain without affecting the linearity of the output signal. The gain of the amplifier should be carefully selected to provide the required measurement range and resolution while avoiding saturation or clipping of the output signal.

3.3 Technology Advantages and Disadvantages

Linear potentiometer sensors offer several advantages, as well as some disadvantages, which make them suitable for specific applications:


  • Simplicity: Linear potentiometers have a simple construction and operating principle, making them easy to understand and integrate into various systems.
  • Cost-effective: These sensors are generally less expensive than other types of displacement sensors, making them an attractive choice for budget-conscious applications.
  • Direct output: Linear potentiometers provide a direct voltage output proportional to the displacement, simplifying the signal processing requirements.
  • Wide range of options: Linear potentiometers are available in various sizes, resistance values, and materials to suit different applications and requirements.


  • Contact-based operation: The wiper physically contacts the resistive track, which can lead to wear and tear over time, affecting the sensor's reliability and lifespan.
  • Limited resolution and accuracy: The resolution and accuracy of linear potentiometers are limited by the quality of the resistive element and wiper contact, which may not be suitable for high-precision applications.
  • Susceptibility to environmental factors: Linear potentiometers can be sensitive to temperature, humidity, and contamination, which may affect their performance and reliability.

3.4. Possible Applications

Linear potentiometer sensors are widely used in various applications due to their simplicity and cost-effectiveness. Here are ten applications where these sensors are typically chosen:

  1. Industrial automation: Monitoring and control of linear actuators, slides, and other positioning equipment.
  2. Machine tools: Measuring the position of cutting heads, tool changers, and other moving components.
  3. Automotive systems: Throttle position sensing, suspension monitoring, and other automotive control applications.
  4. Test and measurement equipment: Precision positioning of probes, stages, and other components in laboratory and research settings.
  5. Medical devices: Position feedback for surgical tools, patient positioning systems, and other medical equipment.
  6. Robotics: Measuring the position of robotic arms, grippers, and other moving components for precise control and feedback.
  7. Material handling systems: Monitoring the position of conveyor belts, lifts, and other material handling equipment for proper control and operation.
  8. Consumer electronics: Providing user input for various devices, such as game controllers, lighting controls, and adjustable furniture.
  9. Audio equipment: Adjusting volume, balance, and equalization settings in professional audio systems and mixing consoles.
  10. Marine applications: Sensing the position of rudders, trim tabs, and other marine control surfaces for accurate steering and maneuvering.

In summary, linear potentiometer sensors are a versatile and cost-effective solution for measuring linear displacement in a wide range of applications. Their simple operation, direct output, and wide range of options make them a popular choice for many industries. By understanding the advantages and disadvantages of linear potentiometers, as well as their typical applications, users can make informed decisions about the most suitable displacement sensing technology for their specific needs.

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